Losses in Nozzles

The actual discharge from nozzles will vary from 90% to 95% of the theoretical discharge. For hydraulic sluicing the following pressures at base of nozzles are recommended:

Light fine material and loose sandy soil:

Stiff loam overburden:

Hard clay:

The following amounts of water are recommended to move 1 cubic foot:

Heavy sand:

Average quarry overburden:

(3.D.1) $$ Q = 19.636*C*{d_1}^2*\sqrt {h} $$

Where:

  • Q = Flowrate in
  • d1 = Nozzle Diameter in
  • h = Head in
  • C = Discharge Coefficient = 1

For sprinkling golf courses it is reasonably safe to figure 10 gallons per minute for each Green with 35 PSIA at hose valve outlet and 25 gallons per minute for each Fairway with 35 PSIA at hose valve outlet. The standard conditions are 100 feet of ¾ inch hose for greens sprinklers and 100 feet of 1 inch hose for fairway sprinklers. Use gate valves with a hose nipple at all outlets instead of the customary hose faucets on account of the friction loss in the hose faucets.

Theoretical Discharge of Nozzles in

Pressure (psig) Head (ft) Velocity (ft/sec) Diameter (in)
0.06 0.125 0.188 0.25 0.375 0.5 0.625 0.75 0.875 1 1.125 1.25 1.375 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.5 2.75 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
10 23.10 38.6 0.4 1.5 3.3 5.9 13.3 23.6 36.9 53.0 72.0 94.0 119.0 147.0 178.0 212.0 289.0 378.0 478.0 590.0 714.0 849.0 1156.0 1510.0 1911.0 2359.0 2855.0 3398.0
15 34.65 47.2 0.5 1.8 4.1 7.2 16.3 28.9 45.2 65.0 88.0 116.0 146.0 181.0 219.0 260.0 354.0 462.0 585.0 722.0 874.0 1040.0 1416.0 1849.0 2341.0 2890.0 3496.0 4161.0
20 46.20 54.5 0.5 2.1 4.7 8.3 18.8 33.4 52.1 75.0 102.0 133.0 169.0 209.0 252.0 300.0 409.0 534.0 676.0 834.0 1009.0 1201.0 1635.0 2135.0 2703.0 3337.0 4037.0 4805.0
25 57.75 61.0 0.6 2.3 5.2 9.3 21.0 37.3 58.3 84.0 114.0 149.0 189.0 233.0 282.0 336.0 457.0 597.0 755.0 933.0 1128.0 1343.0 1828.0 2388.0 3022.0 3731.0 4514.0 5372.0
30 69.30 66.8 0.6 2.6 5.7 10.2 23.0 40.9 63.9 92.0 125.0 163.0 207.0 255.0 309.0 368.0 501.0 654.0 828.0 1022.0 1236.0 1471.0 2002.0 2615.0 3310.0 4087.0 4945.0 5885.0
35 80.85 72.2 0.7 2.8 6.2 11.0 24.8 44.1 69.0 99.0 135.0 177.0 223.0 276.0 334.0 397.0 541.0 706.0 894.0 1104.0 1335.0 1589.0 2163.0 2825.0 3575.0 4414.0 5341.0 6356.0
40 92.40 77.1 0.7 2.9 6.6 11.8 26.5 47.2 73.7 106.0 145.0 189.0 239.0 295.0 357.0 425.0 578.0 755.0 956.0 1180.0 1427.0 1699.0 2312.0 3020.0 3822.0 4719.0 5710.0 6795.0
45 103.95 81.8 0.8 3.1 7.0 12.5 28.2 50.1 78.2 113.0 153.0 200.0 253.0 313.0 379.0 450.0 613.0 801.0 1014.0 1251.0 1514.0 1802.0 2452.0 3203.0 4054.0 5005.0 6056.0 7207.0
50 115.50 86.2 0.8 3.3 7.4 13.2 29.7 52.8 82.4 119.0 162.0 211.0 267.0 330.0 399.0 475.0 646.0 844.0 1068.0 1319.0 1596.0 1899.0 2585.0 3376.0 4273.0 5276.0 6384.0 7597.0
55 127.05 90.5 0.9 3.5 7.8 13.8 31.1 55.3 86.5 124.0 169.0 221.0 280.0 346.0 418.0 498.0 678.0 885.0 1120.0 1383.0 1674.0 1992.0 2711.0 3541.0 4482.0 5533.0 6695.0 7968.0
60 138.60 94.5 0.9 3.6 8.1 14.4 32.5 57.8 90.3 130.0 177.0 231.0 293.0 361.0 437.0 520.0 708.0 925.0 1170.0 1445.0 1748.0 2081.0 2832.0 3699.0 4681.0 5779.0 6993.0 8322.0
65 150.15 98.3 0.9 3.8 8.5 15.0 33.8 60.2 94.0 135.0 184.0 241.0 305.0 376.0 455.0 541.0 737.0 962.0 1218.0 1504.0 1820.0 2166.0 2947.0 3850.0 4872.0 6015.0 7278.0 8662.0
70 161.70 102.0 1.0 3.9 8.8 15.6 35.1 62.4 97.5 140.0 191.0 250.0 316.0 390.0 472.0 562.0 765.0 999.0 1264.0 1561.0 1888.0 2247.0 3059.0 3995.0 5056.0 6242.0 7553.0 8989.0
75 173.25 105.6 1.0 4.0 9.1 16.2 36.3 64.6 101.0 145.0 198.0 258.0 327.0 404.0 489.0 582.0 792.0 1034.0 1308.0 1615.0 1955.0 2326.0 3166.0 4135.0 5234.0 6461.0 7818.0 9304.0
Pressure (psig) Head (ft) Velocity (ft/sec) Diameter (in)
0.06 0.125 0.188 0.25 0.375 0.5 0.625 0.75 0.875 1 1.125 1.25 1.375 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.5 2.75 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
80 184.80 109.1 1.0 4.2 9.4 16.7 37.5 66.7 104.3 150.0 204.0 267.0 338.0 417.0 505.0 601.0 817.0 1068.0 1351.0 1668.0 2019.0 2402.0 3270.0 4271.0 5405.0 6673.0 8075.0 9610.0
85 196.35 112.4 1.1 4.3 9.7 17.2 38.7 68.8 107.5 155.0 211.0 275.0 348.0 430.0 520.0 619.0 843.0 1101.0 1393.0 1720.0 2081.0 2476.0 3371.0 4402.0 5572.0 6879.0 8323.0 9905.0
90 207.90 115.7 1.1 4.4 10.0 17.7 39.8 70.8 110.6 159.0 217.0 283.0 358.0 442.0 535.0 637.0 867.0 1133.0 1433.0 1770.0 2141.0 2548.0 3468.0 4530.0 5733.0 7078.0 8565.0 10193.0
95 219.45 118.9 1.1 4.5 10.2 18.2 40.9 72.7 113.6 164.0 223.0 291.0 368.0 455.0 550.0 654.0 891.0 1164.0 1473.0 1818.0 2200.0 2618.0 3563.0 4654.0 5890.0 7272.0 8799.0 10472.0
100 231.00 122.0 1.2 4.7 10.5 18.7 42.0 74.6 116.6 168.0 228.0 298.0 378.0 466.0 564.0 671.0 914.0 1194.0 1511.0 1865.0 2257.0 2686.0 3656.0 4775.0 6043.0 7461.0 9028.0 10744.0
105 242.55 125.0 1.2 4.8 10.8 19.1 43.0 76.5 119.5 172.0 234.0 306.0 387.0 478.0 578.0 688.0 937.0 1223.0 1548.0 1911.0 2313.0 2752.0 3746.0 4893.0 6193.0 7645.0 9251.0 11009.0
110 254.10 127.9 1.2 4.9 11.0 19.6 44.0 78.3 122.3 176.0 240.0 313.0 396.0 489.0 592.0 704.0 959.0 1252.0 1585.0 1956.0 2367.0 2817.0 3834.0 5008.0 6338.0 7825.0 9468.0 11268.0
115 265.65 130.8 1.3 5.0 11.3 20.0 45.0 80.0 125.0 180.0 245.0 320.0 405.0 500.0 605.0 720.0 980.0 1280.0 1620.0 2000.0 2420.0 2880.0 3921.0 5121.0 6481.0 8001.0 9681.0 11522.0
120 277.20 133.6 1.3 5.1 11.5 20.4 46.0 81.7 127.7 184.0 250.0 327.0 414.0 511.0 618.0 736.0 1001.0 1308.0 1655.0 2043.0 2472.0 2942.0 4005.0 5231.0 6620.0 8173.0 9890.0 11769.0
125 288.75 136.4 1.3 5.2 11.7 20.9 46.9 83.4 130.3 188.0 255.0 334.0 422.0 521.0 631.0 751.0 1022.0 1335.0 1689.0 2085.0 2523.0 3003.0 4087.0 5339.0 6757.0 8342.0 10093.0 12012.0
130 300.30 139.1 1.3 5.3 12.0 21.3 47.9 85.1 132.9 191.0 261.0 340.0 431.0 532.0 643.0 766.0 1042.0 1361.0 1723.0 2127.0 2573.0 3062.0 4168.0 5444.0 6891.0 8507.0 10293.0 12250.0
135 311.85 141.7 1.4 5.4 12.2 21.7 48.8 86.7 135.5 195.0 265.0 347.0 439.0 542.0 656.0 780.0 1062.0 1387.0 1755.0 2167.0 2622.0 3121.0 4248.0 5548.0 7022.0 8669.0 10489.0 12483.0
140 323.40 144.3 1.4 5.5 12.4 22.1 49.7 88.3 137.9 199.0 270.0 353.0 447.0 552.0 668.0 795.0 1081.0 1412.0 1788.0 2207.0 2670.0 3178.0 4326.0 5650.0 7151.0 8828.0 10682.0 12712.0
145 334.95 146.9 1.4 5.6 12.6 22.5 50.5 89.8 140.4 202.0 275.0 359.0 455.0 562.0 679.0 809.0 1101.0 1437.0 1819.0 2246.0 2718.0 3234.0 4402.0 5750.0 7277.0 8984.0 10871.0 12937.0
150 346.50 149.4 1.4 5.7 12.9 22.8 51.4 91.4 142.8 206.0 280.0 366.0 463.0 571.0 691.0 822.0 1119.0 1462.0 1850.0 2284.0 2764.0 3290.0 4478.0 5848.0 7402.0 9138.0 11057.0 13159.0
175 404.25 161.3 1.5 6.2 13.9 24.7 55.5 98.7 154.2 222.0 302.0 395.0 500.0 617.0 746.0 888.0 1209.0 1579.0 1999.0 2468.0 2986.0 3553.0 4836.0 6317.0 7995.0 9870.0 11943.0 14213.0
200 462.00 172.5 1.6 6.6 14.8 26.4 59.4 105.5 164.9 237.0 323.0 422.0 534.0 659.0 798.0 950.0 1293.0 1688.0 2137.0 2638.0 3192.0 3799.0 5170.0 6753.0 8547.0 10551.0 12767.0 15194.0
250 577.50 192.8 1.8 7.4 16.6 29.5 66.4 118.0 184.3 265.0 361.0 472.0 597.0 737.0 892.0 1062.0 1445.0 1888.0 2389.0 2949.0 3569.0 4247.0 5780.0 7550.0 9556.0 11797.0 14274.0 16988.0
300 693.00 211.3 2.0 8.1 18.2 32.3 72.7 129.2 201.9 291.0 396.0 517.0 654.0 808.0 977.0 1163.0 1583.0 2068.0 2617.0 3231.0 3909.0 4652.0 6332.0 8271.0 10468.0 12923.0 15637.0 18609.0
Nozzle Diameter (inches)
0.06 0.125 0.188 0.25 0.375 0.5 0.625 0.75 0.875 1 1.125 1.25 1.375 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.5 2.75 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
Pressure (Bar) Head (m) Velocity (m/s)
0.5 5.095 10.0 0.2 0.7 1.6 2.8 6.2 11.1 17.3 24.9 33.9 44.3 56.1 69.3 83.8 99.7 135.7 177.3 224.4 277.0 335.2 398.9 543.0 709.2 897.5 1108.1 1340.8 1595.6
1.0 10.190 14.1 0.2 1.0 2.2 3.9 8.8 15.7 24.5 35.3 48.0 62.7 79.3 97.9 118.5 141.0 192.0 250.7 317.3 391.8 474.0 564.1 767.8 1002.9 1269.3 1567.0 1896.1 2256.5
1.5 15.285 17.3 0.3 1.2 2.7 4.8 10.8 19.2 30.0 43.2 58.8 76.8 97.2 120.0 145.1 172.7 235.1 307.1 388.6 479.8 580.6 690.9 940.4 1228.3 1554.6 1919.2 2322.3 2763.7
2.0 20.380 20.0 0.3 1.4 3.1 5.5 12.5 22.2 34.6 49.9 67.9 88.6 112.2 138.5 167.6 199.5 271.5 354.6 448.8 554.0 670.4 797.8 1085.9 1418.3 1795.1 2216.1 2681.5 3191.2
2.5 25.475 22.4 0.4 1.5 3.5 6.2 13.9 24.8 38.7 55.7 75.9 99.1 125.4 154.9 187.4 223.0 303.5 396.4 501.7 619.4 749.5 892.0 1214.1 1585.7 2006.9 2477.7 2998.0 3567.9
3.0 30.570 24.5 0.4 1.7 3.8 6.8 15.3 27.1 42.4 61.1 83.1 108.6 137.4 169.6 205.3 244.3 332.5 434.3 549.6 678.5 821.0 977.1 1330.0 1737.1 2198.5 2714.2 3284.2 3908.4
3.5 35.665 26.5 0.5 1.8 4.1 7.3 16.5 29.3 45.8 66.0 89.8 117.3 148.4 183.2 221.7 263.8 359.1 469.1 593.7 732.9 886.8 1055.4 1436.5 1876.3 2374.6 2931.7 3547.3 4221.6
4.0 40.760 28.3 0.5 2.0 4.4 7.8 17.6 31.3 49.0 70.5 96.0 125.4 158.7 195.9 237.0 282.1 383.9 501.5 634.7 783.5 948.1 1128.3 1535.7 2005.8 2538.6 3134.1 3792.2 4513.1
4.5 45.855 30.0 0.5 2.1 4.7 8.3 18.7 33.2 51.9 74.8 101.8 133.0 168.3 207.8 251.4 299.2 407.2 531.9 673.1 831.0 1005.6 1196.7 1628.9 2127.5 2692.6 3324.2 4022.3 4786.8
5.0 50.950 31.6 0.5 2.2 4.9 8.8 19.7 35.0 54.8 78.8 107.3 140.2 177.4 219.0 265.0 315.4 429.2 560.6 709.6 876.0 1060.0 1261.4 1717.0 2242.6 2838.2 3504.0 4239.9 5045.8
5.5 56.045 33.2 0.6 2.3 5.2 9.2 20.7 36.8 57.4 82.7 112.5 147.0 186.0 229.7 277.9 330.8 450.2 588.0 744.2 918.8 1111.7 1323.0 1800.8 2352.0 2976.8 3675.0 4446.8 5292.1
6.0 61.140 34.6 0.6 2.4 5.4 9.6 21.6 38.4 60.0 86.4 117.6 153.5 194.3 239.9 290.3 345.5 470.2 614.2 777.3 959.6 1161.1 1381.8 1880.8 2456.6 3109.1 3838.4 4644.5 5527.4
6.5 66.235 36.0 0.6 2.5 5.6 10.0 22.5 40.0 62.4 89.9 122.4 159.8 202.3 249.7 302.1 359.6 489.4 639.2 809.0 998.8 1208.5 1438.3 1957.6 2556.9 3236.1 3995.2 4834.2 5753.1
7.0 71.330 37.4 0.6 2.6 5.8 10.4 23.3 41.5 64.8 93.3 127.0 165.8 209.9 259.1 313.5 373.1 507.9 663.4 839.6 1036.5 1254.2 1492.6 2031.5 2653.4 3358.3 4146.0 5016.7 5970.2
7.5 76.425 38.7 0.7 2.7 6.0 10.7 24.1 42.9 67.1 96.6 131.4 171.7 217.3 268.2 324.5 386.2 525.7 686.6 869.0 1072.9 1298.2 1544.9 2102.8 2746.6 3476.1 4291.5 5192.7 6179.8
8.0 81.520 40.0 0.7 2.8 6.2 11.1 24.9 44.3 69.3 99.7 135.7 177.3 224.4 277.0 335.2 398.9 543.0 709.2 897.5 1108.1 1340.8 1595.6 2171.8 2836.6 3590.1 4432.3 5363.0 6382.5
8.5 86.615 41.2 0.7 2.9 6.4 11.4 25.7 45.7 71.4 102.8 139.9 182.7 231.3 285.5 345.5 411.2 559.7 731.0 925.2 1142.2 1382.0 1644.7 2238.6 2923.9 3700.6 4568.7 5528.1 6578.9
9.0 91.710 42.4 0.7 2.9 6.6 11.8 26.4 47.0 73.5 105.8 144.0 188.0 238.0 293.8 355.5 423.1 575.9 752.2 952.0 1175.3 1422.1 1692.4 2303.5 3008.7 3807.9 4701.1 5688.4 6769.6
9.5 96.805 43.6 0.8 3.0 6.8 12.1 27.2 48.3 75.5 108.7 147.9 193.2 244.5 301.9 365.3 434.7 591.7 772.8 978.1 1207.5 1461.1 1738.8 2366.7 3091.2 3912.3 4829.9 5844.2 6955.1
10.0 101.900 44.7 0.8 3.1 7.0 12.4 27.9 49.6 77.4 111.5 151.8 198.2 250.9 309.7 374.8 446.0 607.0 792.9 1003.5 1238.9 1499.0 1783.9 2428.2 3171.5 4013.9 4955.4 5996.1 7135.8
10.5 106.995 45.8 0.8 3.2 7.1 12.7 28.6 50.8 79.3 114.3 155.5 203.1 257.1 317.4 384.0 457.0 622.0 812.4 1028.3 1269.4 1536.0 1828.0 2488.1 3249.8 4113.0 5077.8 6144.1 7312
11.0 112.090 46.9 0.8 3.2 7.3 13.0 29.2 52.0 81.2 116.9 159.2 207.9 263.1 324.8 393.0 467.8 636.7 831.6 1052.5 1299.3 1572.2 1871.0 2546.7 3326.3 4209.8 5197.3 6288.7 7484.1
11.5 117.185 47.9 0.8 3.3 7.5 13.3 29.9 53.1 83.0 119.6 162.7 212.6 269.0 332.1 401.9 478.3 651.0 850.3 1076.1 1328.5 1607.5 1913.1 2603.9 3401.0 4304.4 5314.1 6430.1 7652.3
12.0 122.280 49.0 0.8 3.4 7.6 13.6 30.5 54.3 84.8 122.1 166.2 217.1 274.8 339.3 410.5 488.6 665.0 868.5 1099.2 1357.1 1642.1 1954.2 2659.9 3474.2 4397.0 5428.4 6568.3 7816.9
12.5 127.375 50.0 0.9 3.5 7.8 13.9 31.2 55.4 86.6 124.7 169.7 221.6 280.5 346.3 419.0 498.6 678.7 886.5 1121.9 1385.1 1675.9 1994.5 2714.8 3545.8 4487.7 5540.3 6703.8 7978.1
13.0 132.470 51.0 0.9 3.5 7.9 14.1 31.8 56.5 88.3 127.1 173.0 226.0 286.0 353.1 427.3 508.5 692.1 904.0 1144.1 1412.5 1709.1 2034.0 2768.5 3616.0 4576.5 5650.0 6836.6 8136.1
13.5 137.565 52.0 0.9 3.6 8.1 14.4 32.4 57.6 90.0 129.5 176.3 230.3 291.5 359.9 435.4 518.2 705.3 921.2 1165.9 1439.4 1741.7 2072.8 2821.3 3684.9 4663.7 5757.7 6966.8 8291
14.0 142.660 52.9 0.9 3.7 8.2 14.7 33.0 58.6 91.6 131.9 179.6 234.5 296.8 366.5 443.4 527.7 718.3 938.1 1187.3 1465.8 1773.7 2110.8 2873.0 3752.5 4749.3 5863.3 7094.6 8443.2
14.5 147.755 53.8 0.9 3.7 8.4 14.9 33.6 59.7 93.2 134.3 182.7 238.7 302.1 372.9 451.3 537.0 731.0 954.7 1208.3 1491.8 1805.1 2148.2 2923.9 3819.0 4833.4 5967.1 7220.2 8592.6
15.0 152.850 54.8 0.9 3.8 8.5 15.2 34.1 60.7 94.8 136.6 185.9 242.8 307.2 379.3 459.0 546.2 743.5 971.1 1229.0 1517.3 1835.9 2184.9 2973.9 3884.2 4916.0 6069.1 7343.6 8739.5
16.0 163.040 56.6 1.0 3.9 8.8 15.7 35.3 62.7 97.9 141.0 192.0 250.7 317.3 391.8 474.0 564.1 767.8 1002.9 1269.3 1567.0 1896.1 2256.5 3071.4 4011.6 5077.2 6268.2 7584.5 9026.2
17.0 173.230 58.3 1.0 4.0 9.1 16.2 36.3 64.6 101.0 145.4 197.9 258.4 327.1 403.8 488.6 581.5 791.5 1033.8 1308.4 1615.3 1954.5 2326.0 3165.9 4135.1 5233.5 6461.1 7817.9 9303.9
18.0 183.420 60.0 1.0 4.2 9.3 16.6 37.4 66.5 103.9 149.6 203.6 265.9 336.6 415.5 502.8 598.4 814.4 1063.7 1346.3 1662.1 2011.1 2393.4 3257.7 4255.0 5385.2 6648.4 8044.5 9573.7
19.0 193.610 61.6 1.1 4.3 9.6 17.1 38.4 68.3 106.7 153.7 209.2 273.2 345.8 426.9 516.6 614.8 836.7 1092.9 1383.2 1707.6 2066.2 2459.0 3347.0 4371.6 5532.8 6830.6 8265.0 9836
20.0 203.800 63.2 1.1 4.4 9.9 17.5 39.4 70.1 109.5 157.7 214.6 280.3 354.8 438.0 530.0 630.7 858.5 1121.3 1419.1 1752.0 2119.9 2522.9 3433.9 4485.1 5676.5 7008.0 8479.7 10091.5

Last updated on February 7th, 2020